Horse racing has transformed from a primitive contest of speed and stamina between steeds into a modern sport that involves huge fields of runners, sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment, and enormous sums of money. But the basic principle of the game remains unchanged: the first horse to cross the finish line is the winner.
When people think of horse races, they probably imagine a long track where horses run with the assistance of jockeys aboard them. In actuality, the vast majority of horse races are run on dirt or turf ovals that do not exceed one mile in length. In a few rare instances, a horse race may be held over an extremely short distance such as a quarter mile.
The sport of horse racing is one of the oldest sports on record and it has evolved from a simple contest between two animals to an elaborate spectacle involving large fields of runners, sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment, enormous sums of money, and huge crowds of spectators. It is also one of the most lucrative, with the winnings from a single race often reaching into the millions of dollars.
While many horse races are open to all comers, some have special rules regarding the age, sex, birthplace, and previous performance of the horses or their owners that determine eligibility. In addition, there are races that are restricted geographically to a township or county and others for which only horses that have not won a certain amount of money are eligible.
The earliest horse races were essentially match races between two horses over several four-mile heats. Those early races helped to develop the skill and discipline needed to ride and train a horse, as well as to understand the intricacies of the sport. In the 17th and 18th centuries, European immigrants brought their enthusiasm for horse racing to America, where they soon developed an intense interest in the game.
During the 1850s, thoroughbred breeding began to take off in America. The success of the American Thoroughbred led to the development of a system of handicapping, in which the racing secretary assigns weights designed to equalize the chances of each horse. The sport also expanded to include a series of three important races for three year olds, the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes.
After World War II, horse racing was one of the top five spectator sports in America but it has since declined and now struggles to compete with major professional and collegiate team sports. Some critics point to mistakes that the racing industry made in the decades following the war, including a lack of a concerted effort to promote the sport on television and an image that lingers among many Americans of the horse race as a hobby for wealthy white males.
At the Santa Anita racetrack on the afternoon of March 19, 2019, a group called People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) conducted an undercover investigation and videotaped footage that revealed serious abuses of horses at the hands of trainer Steve Asmussen. PETA’s equine veterinarians who examined the footage and other evidence, including veterinary reports from Asmussen’s staff, have concluded that the horses were injured or killed by the treatment they received.